_ __ __ _ /\ | | | \/ | | / \ _ _| |_ ___ | \ / | | / /\ \| | | | __/ _ \| |\/| | | / ____ \ |_| | || (_) | | | | |____ /_/ \_\__,_|\__\___/|_| |_|______| AutoML: taking the human expert out of the loop |
AutoML.org is no longer updated. We moved all information over to ml4aad.org/automl.
To run these algorithms and datasets with hyperparameter optimizers you need to install
Then the benchmarks can easily be used, like described here
Our software allows to integrate your own benchmarks as well. Here is the HowTo
NOTE: For all bechmarks crossvalidation is possible, but not extra listed. Althoug possible, it obviously makes no sense to do crossvalidation on functions like Branin and pre-computed results like the LDA ongrid. Whether it makes sense to do so is indicated in the column CV.
Algorithm | # hyperparams(condition.) | contin./discr. | Dataset | Size(Train/Valid/Test) | runtime | programming language | CV |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Branin | 2(-) | 2/- | - | - | < 1s | Python | no |
Camelback function | 2(-) | 2/- | - | - | < 1s | Ruby | no |
Hartmann 6d | 6(-) | 6/- | - | - | < 1s | Python | no |
LDA ongrid | 3(-) | -/3 | wikipedia articles | - | <1s | Python | no |
SVM ongrid | 3(-) | -/3 | UniPROBE | - | <1s | Python | no |
Logistic Regression | 4(-) | 4/- | MNIST | 50k/10k/10k | <1m (Intel Xeon E5-2650 v2; OpenBlas@2cores) | Python | yes |
hp-nnet | 14(4) | 7/7 | MRBI convex |
10k/2k/50k 6.5k/1.5k/50k |
~25m (GPU, NVIDIA Tesla M2070) ~6m (GPU, NVIDIA Tesla M2070) |
Python | yes |
hp-dbnet | 36(27) | 19/17 | MRBI convex |
10k/2k/50k 6.5k/1.5k/50k |
~15m (GPU, Gefore GTX780) ~10m (GPU, Gefore GTX780) |
Python | yes |
autoweka | 786(784) | 296/490 | convex | 6.5k/1.5k/50k | ~15m | Python/Java | yes |
Surrogate Benchmarks | as original | as original | as original | - | <1sec | Python | sometimes |
This benchmark already comes with the basic HPOlib bundle.
Dependencies: None
Recommended: None
Branin, Camelback and the Hartmann 6d function are three simple test functions,
which are easy and cheap to evaluate. More test functions can be found
here
Branin has three global minima at (-pi, 12.275), (pi, 2.275), (9.42478, 2.475) where f(x)=0.397887.
Camelback has two global minima at (0.0898, -0.7126) and (-0.0898, 0.7126) where f(x) = -1.0316
Hartmann 6d is more difficult with 6 local minima and one global optimum at
(0.20169, 0.150011, 0.476874, 0.275332, 0.311652, 0.6573) where f(x)=3.32237.
This benchmark already comes with the basic HPOlib bundle.
Dependencies: None
Recommended: None
Online Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) is a very expensive algorithm to evaluate. To make this less time consuming, a 6x6x8 grid of hyperparameter configurations resulting in 288 data points was preevaluated. This grid forms the search space.
Same holds for the Support Vector Machine task, which has 1400 evaluated configurations.
The Online LDA code is written by Hoffman et. al. and the procedure is explained in Online Learning for Latent Dirichlet Allocation. Latent Structured Support Vector Machine code is written by Kevin Mill et. al. and explained in the paper Max-Margin Min-Entropy Models. The grid search was performed by Jasper Snoek and previously used in Practical Bayesian Optimization of Machine Learning Algorithms.
Dependencies: theano,
scikit-data
Recommended: CUDA
NOTE: scikit-data
downloads the dataset from
the internet when using the benchmark for the first time.
NOTE: This benchmarks can use a gpu, but this
feature is switched off to run it off-the-shelf. To use a gpu you need to
change the THEANO flags in config.cfg
. See here
for changing to gpu and for further information about the THEANO configuration
here
NOTE: In order to run the benchmark you must adjust the paths in the config files.
You can download this benchmark by clicking here or running this command from a shell:
wget www.automl.org/logistic.tar.gz
tar -xf logistic.tar.gz
This benchmark performs a logistic regression to classifiy the popular MNIST dataset. The implementation is Theano based, so that a GPU can be used. The software is written by Jasper Snoek and was first used in the paper Practical Bayesian Optimization of Machine Learning Algorithms.
NOTE: This benchmark comes with the version of
hyperopt-nnet which we used for our
experiments. There might be a newer version with improvements.
Dependencies: theano,
scikit-data (github version, not pyPI), hyperopt-nnet
Recommended: CUDA
NOTE: scikit-data
downloads the dataset
from the internet when using the benchmark for the first time.
NOTE: In order to run the benchmark you must adjust the paths in the config files.
You can download this benchmark by clicking here or running this command from a shell:
wget www.automl.org/hpnnet.tar.gz
tar -xf hpnnet.tar.gz
The HP-Nnet (HP-DBNet) is a Theano based implementation of a (deep) neural network. It can be run on a CPU, but is drastically faster on a GPU (please follow the theano flags instructions of the logistic regression example). Both of them are written by James Bergstra and were used in the papers Random Search for Hyper-Parameter Optimization and Algorithms for Hyper-Parameter Optimization.
NOTE: AutoWEKA is not yet available for download!
AutoWEKA is a software package which combines the machine learning toolbox WEKA with hyperparameter optimization software. But AutoWEKA goes one step further and also includes model selection inside the hyperparameter optimization. It can choose from 27 classifiers which are implemented in the WEKA toolbox.
Our surrogate benchmarks mimic the behaviour of the corresponding real benchmark but need far less time (<1sec) to return a performance. While we also provide two table-look up benchmarks (onlindeLDAongrid and SVMongrid) our surrogate benchmarks consist of regression models that are trained on data obtained by previous optimization runs. Based on this training data they can predict performance for new configurations. Here you can download most of our surrogate benchmark, which (in combination with the surrogateBenchmark library) should work out of the box.
For further information have a look at our AAAI paper introducing surrogate benchmarks:
NOTE: It might happen that you cannot load the surrogate model (because you don't have a 64-Bit system, you use a different version of numpy/scikit-learn). In this case you can easily retrain the surrogate by yourself. We will soon provide further information on how to do this.
Algorithm | #hyperparams(condition.) | #training data | klick to download | Size |
---|---|---|---|---|
Online LDA | 3(-) | 1 999 | onlineLDA_surrogate.tar.gz | 233M |
Logistic Regression | 4(-) | 4 000 | logreg_surrogate.tar.gz | 310M |
HP-NNET mrbi | 14(4) | 8 000 | hpnnet_surrogate.tar.gz | 639M |
HP-NNET convex | 8 000 | |||
HP-NNET mrbi 5CV | 20 000 | |||
HP-NNET convex 5CV | 19 998 | |||
HP-DBNET mrbi | 36(27) | 7 997 | hpdbnet_surrogate.tar.gz | 306M |
HP_DBNET convex | 7 916 |